How Does ESP Work?
Combining neuromuscular electrical stimulation with resistive swallowing exercises and postural strategies, ESP works by achieving the following:
- Movement of the airway out of the foods pathway
- Stimulation of fast-twitch, powerful muscle fibers to elicit motor contraction
- A 30-minute treatment time, providing 60, 72, or up to 90 swallowing attempts
- A safe, effortful swallow
- Decreased risk for aspiration
Why Does ESP Work?
ESP follows the guidelines of 60 years of research using electrotherapy combined with exercise physiology:
- Proper electrode placement over the affected swallowing muscles
- Frequencies aligned with firing rates of motor neurons (Luschei et al 1999)
- Parameters based on the relationship between amplitude and pulse duration
- A duty cycle that will decrease the risk of metabolic fatigue (Enika et al 2008)
- Principles of specificity training employed using effortful swallowing exercises (Hawley et al 2008)